Sandalwood Farming Cost and Profit – Earn In Crore After 10-12 years
Introduction of Sandalwood Cultivation
Sandalwood is one of the materials used for centuries and this tree is evergreen and can reach a height of 15 to 17 meters with a circumference of 150 cm to 200 cm and is usually spread straight. It also has cultural significance and commercial/medicinal uses. However, some states in India have lifted the ban on sandalwood cultivation. Contact your Forest / Agriculture / Fertility Department for the legalization of sandalwood cultivation in your area. Sandalwood has a special place in Indian tradition where it is used from cradle to cremation. The commercial value of sandalwood and its essential oil is very high due to its use in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, aromatherapy, soap industry, and perfumery.
Sandalwood is in high demand in the international market and at present worldwide production does not meet this demand which has led to a huge increase in the price of sandalwood. You will earn many times more. You will invest in sandalwood cultivation. it can be grown in two ways: organic and conventional. Organic sandalwood trees take about 25 to 30 years to develop, whereas conventional sandalwood trees take about 25 to 30 years to grow. Animals can attack trees because of their odor, so you should keep stray animals away from trees. These trees can grow in any region except sandy and icy regions. Sandalwood is used in perfumes and cosmetics. Even Ayurvedic medicines.
Although there are many types of sandalwood available in the world, Indian sandalwood and Australian sandalwood are very popular and their commercial price is excellent in the market. Although the returns on sandalwood cultivation are very high, it takes 30 years for naturally grown sandalwood trees to be ready for harvest, while intensive planting with an organic method gives early results in 12 to 16 years. Sandalwood grown in India is available in two colors, white and red.
These plants can be cultivated as intercrop in Malabar neem plantations. Heartwood, bark, and essential oils are the main ingredients used in sandalwood cultivation. Sandalwood leaves can also be used for animal feed. In India, sandalwood is grown mainly in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. Sandalwood is available in white, red, and yellow colors.
Sandalwood is a class of wood made from Santalum trees. The wood is heavy, yellow, and fine-grained, and the odorless wood retains its aroma for decades. The oil of sandalwood is removed from the plantation for various uses.. it is the more beneficial and expensive wood in the whole world. Both wood and oil produce a distinctive fragrance that is of high quality. As a result, some species of these slow-growing trees have had to endure over-harvesting in the past.
Uses and health benefits of sandalwood: –
Sandalwood acts as an anti-inflammatory agent. Its mainly used in perfumery products. Their essential oil heals wounds and treats blemish hypertension on the skin. Also, it is used in religious ceremonies. Sandalwood essential oil has antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, AR properties, and memory enhancers. Sandalwood is used in deodorants and can be mixed with different fragrances. There are many perfumes and air fresheners made with sandalwood Oil.
It is a wonderful fragrance of a precious plant But the value of sandalwood oil can go beyond the smell.
Most of its traditional uses have not been scientifically tested, but some research has suggested that sandalwood may help treat some health problems.
Sandalwood Paste and Oil are very effective anti-inflammatory agents. Evidence suggests that sandalwood oil exhibits soothing cooling effects and provides immediate relief from inflammation of the brain, gastrointestinal tract, nervous system, circulatory system, and excretory system due to overdose of antibiotics, fever, insect bites, or wounds.
- Antiseptic – sandalwood oil acts as an excellent disinfectant that is safe and effective both externally and internally. Applying sandalwood oil externally can cause blisters, pimples, abscesses, and septic or pimples infection.
- Strengthens dental health
Since sandalwood oil is rich in astringent properties, it is extremely beneficial in preventing the growth of bacteria that can create cavities in the mouth. It not only helps in healing bleeding gums and healing minor wounds but also helps in cleaning the mouth, increasing secretion in the gastrointestinal tract, increasing saliva, and strengthening the gums.
- Less stress
Sandalwood oil is known to enhance peace. It is one of the best essential oils that controls your emotions and promotes harmony and peace. Rub sandalwood oil on your wrists and ankles or inhale directly to reduce stress and anxiety.
- Natural comfort
Sandalwood oil has great natural soothing and anti-inflammatory properties. Studies show that sandalwood oil relaxes the nerves, and muscles and heals limbs and contractions. In addition, it is effective in treating cramps, colds, and pain. Sandalwood oil relaxes the intestinal and abdominal muscles, promotes the removal of gas, and prevents the formation of excess gas.
- Heals wounds
Sandalwood oil depicts strong anti-bacterial, anti-viral and antifungal properties that are not only used to remove bacteria and germs from the body but also effectively treat wounds and improve the healing system. The bioactive ingredients in this miraculous sal have been used since ancient times to treat various skin problems such as blisters, ulcers, skin fungus, etc.
- Benefits of sandalwood for wounds:
Due to its anti-microbial action (i.e., anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral benefits of sandalwood for acne: Its usefulness in treating acne is due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties.
- The benefits of sandalwood for wrinkles, blemishes, and darkening of skin:
Traditionally, sandalwood is used as an anti-aging product as it reduces wrinkles, blemishes, and darkening of the skin. This is due to its toning, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.
- Benefits of Sandalwood for Psoriasis:
Psoriasis is a skin condition in which the patient usually experiences itching, scabs, and red spots on the elbows, knees, trunk, and scalp.
Applying topically to the area where psoriasis plexus (patches) are present, sandalwood has been shown to reduce the severity of the disease. This is because of its anti-inflammatory properties!
- Benefits of Sandalwood for Cancer Treatment:
The chemical A-Santolol in sandalwood has anti-cancer properties, as shown by animal and cell culture studies. Thus, it has potential uses in the management of skin tumors, which need to be further investigated before use in humans.
- The benefits of sandalwood for the brain:
It has memory-enhancing properties, sedatives, calming effects, and anti-inflammatory action, which has been proven in animal studies. Thus, it has potential uses in sleep disorders, anxiety, and Alzheimer’s disease, which requires further research.
Climate requirement for sandalwood cultivation: –
Sandalwood crop grows well in hot and humid climates. The ideal temperature for sandalwood growth is between 12 C and 35 C.
Soil requirement for sandalwood cultivation: –
Sandalwood trees can be grown in well-drained soil with good organic matter. That’s why red sandy loam soils are good for their growth and Production. If you are planning to cultivate sandalwood commercially, it is advisable to go for soil testing and meet the soil nutrient requirements based on the soil test results. Sandalwood grows well in slightly alkaline soils with a pH range of 5.5 to 7.0.
Land preparation in sandalwood farming
Unlike other plantations, sandalwood cultivation requires proper space for proper tree growth. Lands sloping from north to west with good sunlight are preferable. Land with open water drainage soil is ideal for plantations0. The ground should be dug to a depth of at least 45 cm. Prepare the soil with two deep plows to make it easier for the roots to penetrate into the soil. Plow the manure well on the last plow. Remove all weeds from the site, leaving plants that serve as good hosts.
Seed treatment in sandalwood farming
If sandalwood seeds are sown before sowing, germination will be easier and faster. Soak the required quantity of seeds in water for 24 hours depending on the area under cultivation. Soaked seeds should be dried in the open sun for one day, which will cause the seeds to crack slightly. Cracked seeds are good for planting so that the seeds germinate easily.
Propagation in Sandalwood Farming
Sandalwood can be propagated by seeds or vegetation. In seed propagation also known as generative propagation, processed seeds are used for field propagation. Propagated by cuttings, air layering, or root cuttings in vegetative or tissue culture. Tissue culture is propagated in most commercially sold sandalwood seedlings. This method is easy to do with about an 80% success rate. Plant growth has a major impact on planting time as cuttings planted in early April performed better than cuttings planted in May. The use of Ceradix 82 has been found to be beneficial for vegetative growth, stem cuttings germinate within 23 days and shoot in less than 100 days for root development.
Planting Sandalwood Seedlings in Sandalwood Farming
Before planting sandalwood seedlings in the field, the host seedlings should be grown early for pruning together with small sandalwood trees. Some plants such as native acacia species, pigeon pea, croton megalocarpus, and others are suitable to host plants for sandalwood cultivation. 30% of field deaths are due to a low germination success rate.
The distance and dimensions between sandalwood trees and the host trees play an important role in sandalwood cultivation. Host plants will include intermediate host plants and long-term host plants. The 1.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 feet pits are dug at a distance of at least 10 x 20 feet or 8 x 8 feet with about 325 to 400 sandalwood trees per acre. Each pit is filled with red soil and manure or compost in a ratio of 1: 2.
A long-term plant is usually planted on every fifth tree in each row and a central plant is planted every 150 cm from the sandalwood tree. Central trees should not be taller than sandalwood trees, so regular pruning is necessary. Seedlings 7 to 8 months old or 1 feet tall are suitable for planting in the main field. Kovalya sandalwood trees should have good branches with brown stalks.
Irrigation System in Sandalwood Farming
Sandalwood which is fully established depends on rainfall and needs to be watered in summer. Young sandalwood plants should be watered once in the summer season at intervals of 15 to 22 days. Watering can be done by drip irrigation on hot and summer days and from December to May depending on the soil moisture retention capacity.
Sandalwood farming does not produce fixed fertilizers. Some farmers prefer to apply 10 tons of manure per acre per year before planting sandalwood. Chemical fertilizers are applied at the time of planting sandalwood seedlings and in the early stages depending on the fertility of the soil. As plants attach essential nutrients from nearby host plants to their roots to the roots of the host tree, they can grow well in minimal fertilizers. Organic fertilizers such as compost manure, and green manure can definitely have additional benefits for plant growth.
In the first year, it is necessary to remove the weeds properly, then regular weeding should be done at regular intervals. This will help prevent the loss of nutrients and soil moisture. Farmers can take intercropping to make the best use of the land and use soil management for extra income. Short-duration crops with shallow root systems are more suitable for intercropping which ensures intercropping.
Pests and Diseases in Sandalwood Farming
Sandalwood trees are infested with 100 types of pests, but only a few pests affect the economic performance of sandalwood farming. It is observed that pests inflict maximum damage on seedlings at the nursery stage and under one year. There are also some pests that damage their growth and reproduction plants.
Sandalwood Nursery Stage: sapscars and Defoliators are the main pests that attack young plants.
Insects of the family Coccidae: Saissetiangra, Saiseetiacoffeae, Pulvinariapsidi, Pulvinaria maxima, Ceroplastesactiniformis, Inglisiabivalvata, Tachardinalacca, Aspidiotussp and about 50 species of sapscar insects that attack plants as well as plants.
Species of Saissetiacoffeae and Nigra eat sandalwood leaves and tender shoots. Adult female coffee species are bright, brown, and elliptical, while adult female nigra species are black and large. They settle on the underside of the sandalwood tree and eat the sap of the leaves and the tender shoots which cause them to die again.
Aspidiotussp insects feed on the leaves, causing the sandalwood nursery to turn yellow and wither. They do minor damage.
Seroplastasctiniformis green is another pest that extracts sap from sandalwood trees and tree leaves. Being sapscar they form sooty molds under the leaves which cause them to die again and the seedlings in the nursery to die. These insects are surrounded by a round central core of a thick, pale white wax or pink wax. Spraying of Monocrotophos (0.03 to 0.05%) will eliminate and control the incidence of insects in the nursery.
Tachardinalacca Kerr is one of the major pests of sandalwood fields. They also attack trees, including sandalwood seedlings in the nursery. Spray using 0.6% quinalphos (Eclax 20N or 0.3% dimethoate 0.06% sticker mixture).
The Pulvinaria maxima insect is commonly found on neem trees, the skin of adult females is pale brown causing significant damage to young sandalwood plants. Psidii insect species, mainly sandalwood nurseries do more damage. Large numbers of females gather on the tender shoots and tender stalks, while the males absorb the sap from the leaves. These pests cause premature leaf fall.
Inglisiabivalvata Green is another sapscar insect that makes the leaves brown and wither. Seedlings in the nursery will suffer serious attacks. Adult males have wings, while females are wingless and motionless. The young scale insects emerge from under the female’s scales and absorb the sap and perch on the soft branches. These insects live all year round and can be effectively controlled by spraying 0.3 to 0.5% chlorpyrifos or quinalpho
Locustidae: Orthoptera is a type of grasshopper that is green in color and resembles normal leaves. These insects cannot be traced until they move. They gnaw on sandalwood shoots.
Lantana: inflates Bruner is a type of grass that is slender and resembles a sandalwood plant. Adults lay eggs on the stem parts of succulent and fleshy sandalwood plants. The eggs are laid in longitudinal slits and when the slits swell, the seedlings are damaged as they crack sideways.
Cryptotheleacramerii Westwood (Psychidae: Lepidoptera) is an insect that damages seedlings by cutting the trunk of the plant at ground level.The beetle Sympiezomiascretaceis Faust (Curculionidae: Coleoptera) feeds mainly on the leaves. They feed on the edge of the leaf to the center, while adult beetles feed in a round hole that causes the leaf to fall. They are active in feeding daytime and night.
Canthocycemureihel and Teromaplasioflaps (Psychidae: Lepidoptera) are bag insect that spoils black caterpillar leaves and makes them look burnt. They dissolve completely and dry the sandalwood seedlings.
Harvesting in Sandalwood Farming
The best years for harvesting sandalwood are when the plants are more than 28 years old. March to May and September to October can be harvested twice a year. Heartwood grows well in mature trees over 25 years of age with a girth of 45 to 65 cm. An average of 30 to 50 kg of heartwood can be extracted from a tree with a girth of 60 to70 cm. It is recommended to use the latest cutting equipment rather than cutting with an ax, as each piece of wood is valuable and wood chips should not be lost. After the sapwood is removed, the heartwood of the sandalwood tree is then milled for marketing.
Some commercial farmers who cultivate sandalwood harvest 12 to 15-year-old trees with a girth of 20 to 28 cm. Essential oils from cobalt trees contain low-quality and low-grade essential oils. Young entrepreneurs should note that 10- to 12-year-old trees have low-quality wood, 15-year-old trees have 15% high-quality wood, and 30-year-old trees have 70% high-quality wood. The value of essential oils depends on the quality and grade of the plants harvested. The older the sandalwood, the higher the Production and quality. Often wild sandalwood plants older than 60 years are the ultimate producers of quality essential oils.
Sandalwood Heartwood in Sandalwood Farming
Heartwood is a component that contains sandalwood oil. Heartwood is found in the sandalwood tree beneath the outer layer known as sapwood.
The ratio of heartwood and sapwood varies between sandalwood species. The production and quality of sandalwood oil depend on the size of the heartwood. Large and old sandalwood trees have high levels of heartwood. Dark-colored heartwood is rich in oil and is in high demand in the market.
The heartwood of the sandalwood tree can be obtained from tree branches, trunks, buds, and roots.
In commercial sandalwood farming, farmers harvest trees based on size regardless of the age of the plant. Trees 15 cm in diameter with sapwood less than 116 cm in diameter is considered to be one of the measures for harvesting 130 cm above the ground. Deadwood retains its oil for many years, which can be used to remove fallen or dead plants of any size. Stumps and large roots of sandalwood species such as albums, spectrum, and austrocaldonicum are harvested because of their high oil content and high-quality wood. Chopped twigs and sawdust can be used to make incense.
Production in sandalwood farming
Sandalwood trees are considered to grow very slowly. Heartwood takes 9 to 12 years to form. The growth rate of the sandalwood trees is 1cm per annum in forest conditions and 4cm to 5cm in favorable moisture and soil conditions with good farming practices. Studies show the Production of sandalwood as follows:
Tree age circumference breast height heartwood yield
- 10 years 10-13 cm 1.2 kg
- 20 years 20-21 cm 4.5 kg
- 30 years 30-32 cm 11 kg
- 40 years 40 -42 cm 21 kg
- 50 years 50 – 54 cm 31 kg
Marketing of Sandalwood
Due to high demand and shortage of supply in the global market, the sandalwood market is growing at an average of 20 to 25% per annum. Sandalwood products are used worldwide for crude wood, extracted oil, and its by-products. Sandalwood is used in many industries like traditional medicine, perfume, woodworking, and soap. Pharmaceuticals are not wasted and waste products are sold in the market. Sandalwood can be sold directly in the retail and world markets with proper permits and export permits from the government.
Tips for Growing Sandalwood
- Sandalwood requires well-drained soil with a pH value of 6.0 to 7.0.
- Harvest when sandalwood pods are immature and tender, about half an inch in diameter.
- Flowering occurs once a year or twice a year. When left untreated, they grow rapidly and reach 40 feet in a few years.
- Soak the seeds for 24 hours for early germination and dry them in the shade before planting.
- For fresh greens, harvest young seedlings, growing tips, and cob leaves.
- Plant the seedlings in a large container and keep them indoors if you live in cold climates.
- To extract the seed oil, leave the pods to ripen on the plant until they are dry and brown.
- For dried leaf powder, prune old leaves.
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