Introduction of Black Soil
In farming most probably plantations required the iron magnesium aluminium nitrogen potassium phosphorus and humus and other iron oxides.
Black soils constitute the food basket for several countries and for the planet generally and are often recognized as inherently productive and fertile soils. They widely and intensively farmed, and increasingly dedicated to cereal production, pasture, range and forage systems. Given favorable climate, these soils allow a really high crop productivity.
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black soils are of particular global importance due to their relevance to food security and global climate change
In India and anywhere around the world the black soil having the the mineral like iron magnesium and aluminium but this soils having a deficiency of the nitrogen potassium phosphorus and humans.some of the black soils having the slightly red color mainly this is due to it has iron oxide and in India around 15 to 20% of the black soils made up with the volcanic rocks like a flow of lava or like alluvial soil
This kind of a for black soil is come up from the mostly Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh Maharashtra.typical features of this soil is during the wet period soil can be use for growing or farming but in the dry period you can see that very deep crack of more than 45 cm to 60 cm and in some of the places like a Tamil Nadu on this crack can be extended up to 2 to 3 meter with width which can be very difficult to prepare the land for the farming or plantation even after its preparation it takes longer time as compared to the other kind of soils.
This black soils are mostly fine grained which has the highly calcium and magnesium carbonates black soil it is a more capable to hold the moisture which can easily to maintain the the pH level up to 8.5 to 9 in this black soils mostly cultivated crops are rice, ragi ,sugarcane cashews , tobacco, wheat, cotton, jowar, castor sunflower etc.
Features and limitations of black soil – alluvial soil
- The soils developed on rock and volcanic rock and are moderately slight shallow (52-82 cm) to slightly deep (70-105 cm) where as those developed on basalt are deep (95-160 cm) to very deep less than 160 cm. These soils are high in argillaceous with having clay content varying from 35-75%.
- The clay of Black soil has high coefficient of expansion and contraction, it is dominantly smectitic in nature, which leads to the development of typical features such as melon holes, crab holes, deep and wide cracks and closely intersecting slicken sides.
- The members developed on calcium carbonate clay parent material have high Ca CO3 content that increases sporadically with depth. Black soils have pH values ranging from 7.3 to 8.9, which may reach up to 10.1 in sodic soils.
- The black soils also having high in moisture where holding capacity (161-248 mm, where insufficient of water to plants because the water is held persistently by the smectitic clay.
- Black soils are mostly extremely sticky type when wet, and very hard when it became dry. It have low permeability and therefore the bulk density of those soils is usually high (1.7 to 1.9 Mg m) due to its shrink when it dry.
- Black soils suffer from moisture stress during drought. These soils are poor in organic carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen and sulfur. in shallow soils Water holding capacity may be a major problem.
Black soil Important features
- Best soil for cotton tobacco, wheat, Jowar, castor sunflower cultivation.
- Most of the Deccan plateau is occupied by Black soil.
- Mature and moisturize soil.
- High water holding capacity.
- Swells and can become sticky when wet and shrink when dried.
- Self-ploughing may be a characteristic of the black soil because it develops wide cracks when dried.
- Rich in: Iron, lime, calcium, magnesium, potassium and aluminum
- Deficiency in: Phosphorous, Nitrogen, and organic way.
- Color: Deep black to light black slightly moves to red.
- Texture: Clayey type
Black soils observation by Looking at the property
The black soils also know as regur this word is came from the Telugu traditional word Reguda and black cotton soils because cotton is that the most vital crop grown on these soils. Several theories are suggests regarding the origin of this group of soils but most pedologists believe that these soils are formed thanks to the solidifaction of lava cover large areas during volcanic activity within the Deccan Plateau, thousands of years ago.
Most of the black soils and alluvial soil are extract from two kind of rocks, the Deccan and therefore the Rajmahal trap, and ferruginous gneisses and schists occurring in Tamil Nadu. The previous are sufficiently deep while the later are generally shallow..
Krebs holds that the regur is actually a mature soil which has been produced by relief and climate, instead of by a specific sort of rock. consistent with him, this soil occurs where the annual rainfall is between 50 to 80 cm and therefore the number of rainy days range from 30 to 50. The occurrence of this soil within the west deccan where the rainfall is about 100 cm and therefore the number of rainy days quite 50, is taken into account by him to be an exception.
In some parts of Gujarat Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu , the origin of black cotton soils is ascribed to old lagoons during which the rivers deposited the materials brought down from the inside of Peninsula covered with lava rock.
Geographically, black soils are spread over 5.46 lakh sq km (i.e. 16.6 per cent of the total geographical area of the country) encompassed between 15Â°N to 25Â°N latitudes and 72Â°E to 82Â°E longitudes. This is the region of high temperature and low rainfall. It is, therefore, a soil group of the dry and hot regions of the Peninsula.
These soils are mainly found in region of middle and south side like Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh , Gujarat and Tamil Nadu .
black cotton soil
The black color of those soils has been attributed by some of scientists to the presence of a little proportion of iron and black constituents of the parent rock. The black color of this soil may even be derived from crystalline schists and basic gneisses like in Tamil Nadu and parts of Andhra Pradesh other southern state. Various tints of the black color like deep black, medium black, shallow black or maybe a mix of slightly red and black could also be found during this bunch of soils.
The black soil is very extremely retentive of moisture. It swells greatly and becomes highly sticky when become wet season. Under such conditions, it’s almost impossible to figure on such soil because the plough gets stuck within the mud.
However, within the hot season , the moisture might be evaporates, the soil start to shrinks and is seamed with broad and deep cracks, often twelve to seventeen cm wide and up to a meter deep. this allows oxygenation of the soil to sufficient depths and therefore the soil has become extraordinary fertility.
Black soil in India | types of soil in India
by doing “ploughed” it loosened particles of soils and fallen from the bottom into the deep cracks, the soil itself “swallows” and maintain the soil moisture. This soil has been used for growing a spread of crops for hundreds of years without adding any fertilizers and manures, or maybe fallowing with no evidence of exhaustion.
A typical black soil is very argillaceous with an out sized clay factor, 65 per cent or more that it, without gravel or coarse sand. It also contains 15 per cent of alumina, 10-12 per cent of iron oxide and 8-10 percent of magnesium carbonates and lime. Potash is various less than 1 per cent and phosphates, nitrogen and humus are comparatively low.
In all reguda black soils and alluvial soil generally , and in those extract from ferromagnesian schists especially , there’s a layer rich in segregation of carbonate at lower depths. As a general rule, soils of up lands are of low fertility but they are too darker, deeper and richer within the valleys itself.
Because of their high fertility and moisture retentivity , the soils are mostly used for producing lots of important crops. like main crops grown on the black soils are cotton, wheat, jowar, linseed, tobacco, castor and sunflower. Rice and sugarcane are also equally important but it required irrigation facilities. Large sorts of vegetables and fruits also are successfully grown on the Soils. only thing is to maintain moisture in soil
The upper limit of soil is that the boundary between soil and air, shallow water, live plants, or plant materials that haven’t begun to decompose. Areas aren’t considered to possess soil if the surface is permanently covered by water too deep typically quite 1.5 to 2.6 meters for the expansion of rooted plants.
Commonly, soil grades at its lower boundary to hard rock or to earthy materials virtually barren of animals, roots, or other marks of biological activity.