Coffee Planting | Coffee growing guide for beginners
Introduction to Coffee Growing or Coffee planting: –
Coffee is also one of the flowering plants which is grown for a grain/seed known as ‘Coffee Beans’. Many coffee products, including beverages, are made from these fresh coffee beans. These plants are small when it comes to planting size. Coffee plants are found in the tropics of Asia and South Africa. In the India, the state of Karnataka first time Coffee was introduced nearby in 1936 . Coffee is one of the popular commodity crops that plays a major role in the global economy. Brazil ranks first in the world in coffee production.
From a commercial point of view, coffee is a major export crop for many countries around the world. Many varieties of coffee are grown worldwide. However, 80% of “Coffee Arabica” is produced in the world’s coffee production. Another species of coffee is Coffee Robusta (made from the coffee Canephora plant) which accounts for about 21% of the world’s coffee production.
The coffee tree produces purple or red cherries (edible fruits) and may contain seeds (coffee beans). Coffee trees are shrubs or types of trees that can reach a height of 11-12 feet. The flowers of the coffee plant have an excellent aroma and are usually white in color. Once a coffee garden is established, it can produce coffee beans for 55 to 60 years. Generally, fruit beans/cherries grow 2.5 to 4 years after planting coffee trees (especially coffee arabica).
Coffee plants can be grown in pots and containers and even in the backyard. Commercial cultivation of coffee beans is an excellent business and the expected profit can be obtained according to the ideal cropping practices. In the next article, we will discuss how to grow more coffee and its management methods.
Coffee Planting or coffee growing
“Coffee Arabica” and “Coffee Robusta” is the Scientific name or botanical name of the coffee bean plant
Top 10 coffee-producing countries: –
The following are the top ten coffee-producing countries in the world.
The largest coffee producing states in India: – The major coffee producing states in India are as under.
3. Tamil Nadu
4. Andhra Pradesh
5. Odisha (Orissa)
Health Benefits of Coffee: – Below are some of the health benefits of coffee.
- Coffee is a wonderful drink that can reduce depression
- Coffee is a natural source of anti-oxidants
- Coffee is good for heart health and regular consumption of coffee can reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke.
- Coffee is a good ingredient that can reduce Alzheimer’s disease. It can also enhance short-term memory
- Coffee lowers the risk of diabetes (type 2)Regular consumption of coffee can reduce the risk of multiple sclerosis
- Coffee is an excellent drink for liver health. Regular consumption of coffee reduces the risk of liver cell damage.
Coffee is good for protecting against Parkinson’s disease
- Coffee can prevent gout.
- Coffee can help prevent certain types of cancer such as colorectal cancer.
Coffee Varieties (Agriculture): –
There are hundreds of varieties of Arabica and Robusta. However, you need to go to your local horticulture department to find the right variety for your local conditions.
Climate requirements for coffee cultivation: –
Climate plays a major role in the growth of coffee. Coffee Arabica can be grown at altitudes of 900 m to 1600 m. However, it can be taken well even at low altitudes. The main disadvantage of planting coffee beans at high altitudes is that late maturation can occur and frost conditions and high winds can damage the crop. the coffee crop grows well with an annual rainfall of 2,100 to 2350 mm. This crop is highly sensitive to high rainfall conditions and can cause leaf rot and fungal diseases. An ideal temperature of 10 – C – 28 ° C is required for good growth and production. Coffee cultivation requires shade in regions where high temperatures are possible.
Soil requirement for coffee cultivation: –
Coffee can be grown on a wide field. However, shallow soils (sandy loam) with good organic matter are ideal for the cultivation of virgin soils up to high hill slopes or almost flat lands. You should consider soil water balance as it can play an important role in the growth of coffee. if you want to do Commercial coffee growing the you should go for soil testing. Any nutrient deficiency in the soil should be met before starting a coffee garden. For high yield and quality products, soil pH should be between 5.0 – 6.0.
Coffee crop propagation, seed rate and seed processing: –
Coffee is propagated by seeds and cuttings. The selection of quality seeds is very important for the growth of coffee. Make sure the seeds are wide and boat-shaped. Remove any pulp from the seeds by hand and these seeds should be rubbed with ash so that they do not stick. Let the coffee beans dry in the shade. Generally, it takes 4000 to 5000 coffee seeds to cover one hectare of land. It is recommended to sow these seeds at a distance of 2.5 cm. Germination takes about 30 to 40 days after sowing in field or nursery. These coffee seedlings should be uprooted and placed in polythene ba2 or in the nursery at a distance of 25 cm.
1. Seed propagation in coffee growth –
Coffee Arabica plants self-pollinate and usually Arabica cultivars produce true seedlings from seed propagation. Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium can be used for seed treatment before sowing.
Land preparation, planting of seedlings and spacing of coffee growing: –
For good establishment of coffee orchards, the soil should be well prepared for 4 or 5 plowing and for fine tillage. As part of this preparation, remove any stones / debris / and weeds from previous crops. Commercial coffee growers should consider soil testing to measure soil fertility and usefulness. According to the soil test report, any nutrients and micronutrients should be supplied to the soil before planting. In case of application of fertilizers like phosphorus and lime, coffee seedlings should be thoroughly mixed by plowing and scraping the soil for several months before planting.
Well, planting spacing varies with variety and depends mainly on topography and soil fertility. The general differences between the different species of coffee are as follows.
1. Coffee Arabica: 2m x 3m
2. Coffee Robusta: 3m x 3m.
while doing plantation, straight row cultivation with east-west orientation is preferred in coffee growth.
The coffee crop is planted in spring or before the rainy season as it requires moist soil and cool climate for good establishment and growth. In order for coffee seedlings to grow well, the space between rows should be 15 cm to 20 cm. In rows, coffee beans should be laid down at a distance of 3 cm to 5 cm along the flat side of 0.5 cm to 1 cm depth.
After the coffee seedlings have grown in the nursery, 6 to 7 months old seedlings about 25 to 30 cm tall should be transported and planted in the main field. Before planting coffee seedlings in the field, prepare pits to loosen the soil. These pits should be dug 3 months before planting in the field. Dig pits of size 55 cm x 55 cm x 55 cm.
In areas where sunlight is intense, the crop needs partial shade, so it is advisable to grow shade trees in the field. You can plant species of Ficus, Terminal SP, Silver Oak, Albizi, Lebac, Arfocarpus heteophytius, Erythina tilthesparna and Glyricidia maculate to provide shade for coffee growth.
Irrigation in coffee crop: –
Frequency of irrigation in coffee crop depends on soil type, soil moisture, age of plants and climate. Many irrigation methods are available such as drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, microjet and basin irrigation. However, drip irrigation is the best method to make the best use of water and fertilizers. It can also control the growth of weeds in the tree canopy.
In irrigation, each coffee plant needs at least 55 to 60 mm of water and it should be planted before planting. Subsequent 26 mm of water should be given at intervals of 9 to 11 days. Be sure to keep the soil moist and avoid excessive moisture. Drinking too much water can cause plant and fungal diseases in the coffee crop. The rule is to water 2-3 times a week in dry weather.
Intercultural Coffee Growing: –
Control weeds in coffee growth: Digging and pruning is required in September, November and again in February and March. In the early stages Control weeds. Chemical herbicides like Dalapon can be used for grass control. 3, 4 – D amino salts can be used or can control broad-leaved weeds.
Mulching in Coffee Growing:
Mulching is another function that provides weed control and can prevent moisture loss and soil erosion. Another advantage of mulching is that it can enrich the soil, reduce excess soil temperature and improve soil texture. In most cases, the mulching material can turn into excellent organic matter.
Pruning in the growth of coffee farming:
Pruning involves removing dried, dead branches and any unhealthy branches. This operation involves pruning a portion of the pole and can be done once every 4 years to bring it back to good shape and control unwanted shoots. Make sure this work is done immediately after harvest.
Pests and diseases in coffee growth: –
Pest and disease control is essential in crop cultivation. The pests and diseases found in the coffee garden are as follows.
Insect Pests in Coffee farming:
- Gray Coffee Snot Beetle
- Coffeeberry moth
- White stem borer
- Anesthesia stink bug
- Leafminer, Melibug
- Black coffee stem borer
- A variety of coffee bugs.
Diseases in the Coffee Garden:
- Roselinia bunods
- Armilaria melia
- Rust of coffee leaves
- Coffee berry disease
- Trachomycosis wilt
- American Leaf Spot
- Root rot disease
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Harvesting activities while growing coffee: –
Coffee beans / cherries start to be picked from the third year after planting in the field. A healthy and good product can be obtained from the fifth year. Best of all, coffee cultivation lasts for 55 to 60 years.
- Fly picking: You can pick ripe coffee berries from October to February. Generally, this is a small amount of picking
- Main Picking: It is recommended to pick well ripened and ready coffee berries / beans in December. This is the main harvest method of coffee berry (used for mass production).
- Stripping: This method is used to select all the remaining berries on the plant irrespective of ripening stage.
- Cleaning: This method involves collecting fruits discarded during harvesting.
Post-harvest work in coffee growing: –
Post-harvest work of coffee includes drying, grading, packing, storage and evaporation.
- Fruit Drying: You can dry freshly brewed coffee beans in the sun or mechanically hot air and preferably in the shade on a grill.
- Fruit grading: Fruit grading should be done with the help of a rotating sieve according to size and shape.
- Packing the beans: Be sure to pack the beans very tightly in an airtight basket.
- Storage of beans: Do not leave beans open for moisture and keep the storage room dry, clean and well ventilated.
Transportation of final product: All packaged graded coffee beans should be transported by truck to coffee roasting mills or facilities along with original bags.
Coffee Growth Yield in coffee agriculture: – The yield of any crop in horticulture depends on many factors like soil type, climate, variety, irrigation/rainfall, and other horticulture management practices. Under ideal conditions, the following yields can be expected.
1. Coffee Arabica – 420 – 710 kg / ha
2. Coffee Robusta – 3660 – 770 kg / ha.
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